First Generation Computers


General

  • First generation computers are characterized by the use of vacuum tube logic.

ABC

  • The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) was the first electronic digital computer.
  • The ABC was built from 1937 to 1942 by by John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University.
  • The ABC used binary arithmetic.

Colossus

  • The Colossus computer was developed in secret by Great Brittain during World War II, and was operational in 1943.
  • Colossus was used to decode German messages.
  • The existence of Colossus was kept a secret until 1970, by which time it had been disassembled.
  • Due to the secrecy under which it was developed, almost no details of the construction or architecture of Colossus are known.

ENIAC

  • The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was developed for the U.S. Army to calculate ballistic tables.
  • ENIAC used 19,000 vacuum tubes and 1,500 mechanical relays.
  • ENIAC consumed almost 200 KW of power.
  • ENIAC performed decimal arithmetic, in contrast to the binary arithmetic performed by computers today.
  • ENIAC did not run from a stored program, but was programmed using patch cords.
  • ENIAC was completed in 1946, and was operated until 1955.
  • ENIAC cost almost $500,000.

UNIVAC I

  • The Universal Automatic Computer UNIVAC I design was begun in 1946, and the first working unit was finished in 1951.
  • The UNIVAC was the first computer designed for commercial sale.
  • The UNIVAC I had 5200 vacuum tubes, weighed 29,000 pounds, and consumed 125 kilowatts of electrical power.
  • The memory of the UNIVAC I was mercury acoustic delay lines.
  • Numbers were stored in excess-3 binary coded decimal form.

The IAS computer

IBM 701 Computer

  • The 701 was IBM’s first commercial computer.
  • The first IBM 701 system was installed in 1953.
  • The 701 was designed for scientific applications.
  • The 701 was comprised of 11 compact and connected units.
  • The 701 had a word size of 36 bits.
  • The 701 had 2048 words of electrostatic storage, and 16,192 words of magnetic drum storage.
  • The 701 had 4 magnetic tape units for secondary storage.

Brief Early Computer Timeline

Date

Event

Description

Arithmetic

Logic

Memory

1942

ABC

Atanasoff-Berry Computer

binary

vacuum tubes

capacitors

1944

Collosus

1946

ENIAC

Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer

decimal

vacuum tubes

vacuum tubes

1947

EDVAC

Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer

binary

1948

The Baby

Manchester Small Scale Experimental Machine

binary

vacuum tubes

CRST

1949

UNIVAC I

Universal Automatic Computer

decimal

vacuum tubes

mercury delay lines

1949

EDSAC

Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer

binary

vacuum tubes

mercury delay lines

1952

IAS

Institute for Advanced Studies

binary

vacuum tubes

cathode ray tubes

1953

IBM 701

binary

vacuum tubes

mercury delay lines

New Internet Explorer 8 Beta- What’s New?



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Six months after Beta 1 hit the streets, Microsoft releases Internet Explorer 8 Beta 2 to brave testers. The new beta includes features that make it look like a viable choice of modern browser, like a smart address bar (sound familiar?), tab grouping, private browsing, find in-page, suggested sites related to the current page, and more. Let’s take a look at what’s coming out of Redmond in the browser arena.

IE8 Beta 2’s Most Useful Features
Smart Address Bar: IE 8 beta 2 includes a Smart Address Bar, that, like Firefox 3’s “AwesomeBar,” drops down suggestions as-you-type a web site URL gleaned from your favorites, feeds, and history. Unlike Firefox, IE 8 includes headers so you can see where each suggestion comes from.

Tab Grouping: Ever open a bunch of links from a single page in new tabs, and then lose track of which tabs came from what page? IE8’s got a nifty “tab grouping” feature that colors your tabs based on their source. Here’s what a few tab groups—one from Lifehacker, one from the MSN homepage—look like.

InPrivate Browsing: What with the Smart Address Bar pulling up every site you’ve visited recently in plain view in its History suggestions, there may be times when you visit a site and have the browser forget it ever happened. IE 8 beta 2’s “InPrivate” browsing mode adds an icon to the address bar, and forgets you were ever at a web page when it’s enabled.

Continue reading “New Internet Explorer 8 Beta- What’s New?”