The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, and more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. Read about each generation and the developments that led to the current devices that we use today.
First Generation – 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes:
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.
The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
Second Generation – 1956-1963: Transistors:
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.
The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.
Third Generation – 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits:
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
Fourth Generation – 1971-Present: Microprocessors:
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer – from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls – on a single chip.
In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.
As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.
Fifth Generation – Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence:
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.
He is a prolific Indian director and screenwriter. With his first four feature films Ankur, Nishant, Manthan, and Bhumika, he created a new genre, which has now come to be called the “middle cinema” in India. After dwelling so deep into serious cinema, Shyam Benegal made his first comedy film, Welcome to Sajjanpur that has been now invited for the prestigious London Film Festival 2008 that starts on October 15 and ends on October 30 in London. The film has been selected for World Cinema Category. London Film Festival showcases the best new films from around the world.
Welcome to Sajjanpur starring Shreyas Talpade, Amrita Rao, Divya Dutta, Ila Arun, Ravi Kishan and Rageshwari Sachdev is a delightful satirical take on a contemporary Indian village. The film is set in a make believe world of Sajjanpur, something like the ‘Malgudi’ of R. K. Narayan. Says Vikas Bahl, the producer, UTV Spotboy, “We made a film that is from the heartland of India narrated in a very light hearted manner. To me, a subject like this selected for such a big festival is very encouraging and interesting. We didn’t make the film with an intension of taking it to festival circuits but such news is really encouraging.”
Shyam Benegal, the director of the film was happy to hear the news and said, “London Film Festival is like an annual affair for me now. Almost all my films have been showcased there. I am happy and honored that like every year this year too I will be a part of the festival with Welcome to Sajjanpur. It is a nice platform to display the film to larger audiences. I hope everyone would like the film.”
Welcome to Sajjanpur is a story of Mahadev (played by Shreyas Talpade) who is one of the few educated young men from Sajjanpur. His ambition is to be a novelist but finds it easier to make a living by writing letters sitting next to the post office. His ability to write persuasive letters makes him popular with the largely non-literate population of the town. Aware of this power, he soon uses his talent to manipulate people with amusing and sometimes not such amusing results.
Former President A P J Abdul Kalam will teach students of Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIM-A) on Globalising and Resurgent India through Innovative Transformation(GRIT) from September 13.
Dr Kalam will start his lectures to a bench of around 70 students from Saturday, IIM-A sources said.
The ‘Missile Man’ is likely to include his vision 2010 for the country in the course material and teach students about the same.
After initial lectures, students would be expected to submit project proposals for creating scenarios based on multiple and if necessary, contending options for specific policy and institutional changes.
The faculty would comment on these proposals and the project teams would be enabled to consult the subject matter specialists through invited lectures and interactions or visit to them.
The final reports will be presented in open sessions in which other faculty members and the students may also be invited to ask questions and make comments.
The reports will be revised and those of them, which are of outstanding quality, may be published for wider debate every year.
September 10, 2008 (Sawf News) – Bollywood actors, Shreyas Talpade and Amrita Rao visited the sets of STAR Plus’ Aajaa Mahi Vay to promote their upcoming movie Welcome to Sajjanpur.
Caught in a flirtatious mood yet again with Amrita Rao, the newest lady on the show, host Vineet left no stone unturned in wooing her!
Shreyas and Amrita were also seen shaking a leg with contestants Maanav, Rashmee, Jashan and Tahira on hit songs from their upcoming movie.
The episode will air on Friday, September 12, 8 pm only on STAR Plus.
Shyam Benegal’s Welcome To Sajjanpur, produced by UTV Spotboy, revolves around a young man who becomes extremely popular in his village Sajjanpur because he is the only educated person around to help illiterate people write their letters. It’s a satirical take on a contemporary Indian village.
The film is slated for release on September 19.
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Yesterday when I was going through the various blogs, I found a very interesting community,
Gujarati Bloggers[This domain has been expired now. The site does not exists]. This community provides brief information about the Gujarati Bloggers spread across the globe.
Tarun Patel, the owner of this community, has introduced so many new bloggers and encourages the Gujju bloggers. According to me, you should also visit this community.